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File: [cvsweb.bsd.lv] / mandoc / apropos.1 (download)

Revision 1.37, Mon Feb 16 16:23:54 2015 UTC (5 years, 9 months ago) by schwarze
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: VERSION_1_13_3
Changes since 1.36: +3 -5 lines

Delete the -V option.  It serves no purpose but keeps confusing people.

Keeping track of the versions of installed software is the job of
the package manager, not of the individual binaries.  If individual
binaries include version numbers, that tends to goad people into
writing broken configuration tests that inspect version numbers
instead of properly testing for features.

.\"	$Id: apropos.1,v 1.37 2015/02/16 16:23:54 schwarze Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2011, 2012 Kristaps Dzonsons <kristaps@bsd.lv>
.\" Copyright (c) 2011, 2012, 2014 Ingo Schwarze <schwarze@openbsd.org>
.\"
.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
.\"
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
.\" WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
.\" MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
.\" ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
.\" WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
.\" ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
.\" OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
.\"
.Dd $Mdocdate: February 16 2015 $
.Dt APROPOS 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm apropos ,
.Nm whatis
.Nd search manual page databases
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl acfhklw
.Op Fl C Ar file
.Op Fl M Ar path
.Op Fl m Ar path
.Op Fl O Ar outkey
.Op Fl S Ar arch
.Op Fl s Ar section
.Ar expression ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm apropos
and
.Nm whatis
utilities query manual page databases generated by
.Xr makewhatis 8 ,
evaluating
.Ar expression
for each file in each database.
By default, they display the names, section numbers, and description lines
of all matching manuals.
.Pp
By default,
.Nm
searches for
.Xr makewhatis 8
databases in the default paths stipulated by
.Xr man 1
and uses case-insensitive substring matching
.Pq the Cm = No operator
over manual names and descriptions
.Pq the Li \&Nm No and Li \&Nd No macro keys .
Multiple terms imply pairwise
.Fl o .
.Pp
.Nm whatis
is a synonym for
.Nm
.Fl f .
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl a
Instead of showing only the title lines, show the complete manual pages,
just like
.Xr man 1
.Fl a
would.
If the standard output is a terminal device and
.Fl c
is not specified, use
.Xr more 1
to paginate them.
In
.Fl a
mode, the options
.Fl IKOTW
described in the
.Xr mandoc 1
manual are also available.
.It Fl C Ar file
Specify an alternative configuration
.Ar file
in
.Xr man.conf 5
format.
.It Fl c
In
.Fl a
mode, copy the formatted manual pages to the standard output without using
.Xr more 1
to paginate them.
.It Fl f
Search for all words in
.Ar expression
in manual page names only.
The search is case insensitive and matches whole words only.
In this mode, macro keys, comparison operators, and logical operators
are not available.
This overrides any earlier
.Fl k
and
.Fl l
options.
.It Fl h
Instead of showing the title lines, show the SYNOPSIS sections, just like
.Xr man 1
.Fl h
would.
.It Fl k
Support the full
.Ar expression
syntax.
This overrides any earlier
.Fl f
and
.Fl l
options.
It is the default for
.Nm .
.It Fl l
An alias for
.Xr mandoc 1
.Fl a .
This overrides any earlier
.Fl f ,
.Fl k ,
and
.Fl w
options.
.It Fl M Ar path
Use the colon-separated path instead of the default list of paths
searched for
.Xr makewhatis 8
databases.
Invalid paths, or paths without manual databases, are ignored.
.It Fl m Ar path
Prepend the colon-separated paths to the list of paths searched
for
.Xr makewhatis 8
databases.
Invalid paths, or paths without manual databases, are ignored.
.It Fl O Ar outkey
Show the values associated with the key
.Ar outkey
instead of the manual descriptions.
.It Fl S Ar arch
Restrict the search to pages for the specified
.Xr machine 1
architecture.
.Ar arch
is case insensitive.
By default, pages for all architectures are shown.
.It Fl s Ar section
Restrict the search to the specified section of the manual.
By default, pages from all sections are shown.
See
.Xr man 1
for a listing of sections.
.It Fl w
Instead of showing title lines, show the pathnames of the matching
manual pages, just like
.Xr man 1
.Fl w
would.
.El
.Pp
An
.Ar expression
consists of search terms joined by logical operators
.Fl a
.Pq and
and
.Fl o
.Pq or .
The
.Fl a
operator has precedence over
.Fl o
and both are evaluated left-to-right.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It \&( Ar expr No \&)
True if the subexpression
.Ar expr
is true.
.It Ar expr1 Fl a Ar expr2
True if both
.Ar expr1
and
.Ar expr2
are true (logical
.Sq and ) .
.It Ar expr1 Oo Fl o Oc Ar expr2
True if
.Ar expr1
and/or
.Ar expr2
evaluate to true (logical
.Sq or ) .
.It Ar term
True if
.Ar term
is satisfied.
This has syntax
.Sm off
.Oo
.Op Ar key Op , Ar key ...
.Pq Cm = | ~
.Oc
.Ar val ,
.Sm on
where
.Ar key
is an
.Xr mdoc 7
macro to query and
.Ar val
is its value.
See
.Sx Macro Keys
for a list of available keys.
Operator
.Cm =
evaluates a substring, while
.Cm ~
evaluates a regular expression.
.It Fl i Ar term
If
.Ar term
is a regular expression, it
is evaluated case-insensitively.
Has no effect on substring terms.
.El
.Pp
Results are sorted by manual sections and names, with output formatted as
.Pp
.D1 name[, name...](sec) \- description
.Pp
Where
.Dq name
is the manual's name,
.Dq sec
is the manual section, and
.Dq description
is the manual's short description.
If an architecture is specified for the manual, it is displayed as
.Pp
.D1 name(sec/arch) \- description
.Pp
Resulting manuals may be accessed as
.Pp
.Dl $ man \-s sec name
.Pp
If an architecture is specified in the output, use
.Pp
.Dl $ man \-s sec \-S arch name
.Ss Macro Keys
Queries evaluate over a subset of
.Xr mdoc 7
macros indexed by
.Xr makewhatis 8 .
In addition to the macro keys listed below, the special key
.Cm any
may be used to match any available macro key.
.Pp
Names and description:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&Nm Ta manual name
.It Li \&Nd Ta one-line manual description
.It Li arch Ta machine architecture (case-insensitive)
.It Li sec  Ta manual section number
.El
.Pp
Sections and cross references:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&Sh Ta section header (excluding standard sections)
.It Li \&Ss Ta subsection header
.It Li \&Xr Ta cross reference to another manual page
.It Li \&Rs Ta bibliographic reference
.El
.Pp
Semantic markup for command line utilities:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&Fl Ta command line options (flags)
.It Li \&Cm Ta command modifier
.It Li \&Ar Ta command argument
.It Li \&Ic Ta internal or interactive command
.It Li \&Ev Ta environmental variable
.It Li \&Pa Ta file system path
.El
.Pp
Semantic markup for function libraries:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&Lb Ta function library name
.It Li \&In Ta include file
.It Li \&Ft Ta function return type
.It Li \&Fn Ta function name
.It Li \&Fa Ta function argument type and name
.It Li \&Vt Ta variable type
.It Li \&Va Ta variable name
.It Li \&Dv Ta defined variable or preprocessor constant
.It Li \&Er Ta error constant
.It Li \&Ev Ta environmental variable
.El
.Pp
Various semantic markup:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&An Ta author name
.It Li \&Lk Ta hyperlink
.It Li \&Mt Ta Do mailto Dc hyperlink
.It Li \&Cd Ta kernel configuration declaration
.It Li \&Ms Ta mathematical symbol
.It Li \&Tn Ta tradename
.El
.Pp
Physical markup:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&Em Ta italic font or underline
.It Li \&Sy Ta boldface font
.It Li \&Li Ta typewriter font
.El
.Pp
Text production:
.Bl -column "xLix" description -offset indent -compact
.It Li \&St Ta reference to a standards document
.It Li \&At Ta At No version reference
.It Li \&Bx Ta Bx No version reference
.It Li \&Bsx Ta Bsx No version reference
.It Li \&Nx Ta Nx No version reference
.It Li \&Fx Ta Fx No version reference
.It Li \&Ox Ta Ox No version reference
.It Li \&Dx Ta Dx No version reference
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Bl -tag -width MANPAGER
.It Ev MANPAGER
Any non-empty value of the environment variable
.Ev MANPAGER
will be used instead of the standard pagination program,
.Xr more 1 .
.It Ev MANPATH
The standard search path used by
.Xr man 1
may be changed by specifying a path in the
.Ev MANPATH
environment variable.
Invalid paths, or paths without manual databases, are ignored.
Overridden by
.Fl M .
If
.Ev MANPATH
begins with a colon, it is appended to the default list;
if it ends with a colon, it is prepended to the default list;
or if it contains two adjacent colons,
the standard search path is inserted between the colons.
If none of these conditions are met, it overrides the
standard search path.
.It Ev PAGER
Specifies the pagination program to use when
.Ev MANPAGER
is not defined.
If neither PAGER nor MANPAGER is defined,
.Pa /usr/bin/more Fl s
will be used.
.El
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width "/etc/man.conf" -compact
.It Pa mandoc.db
name of the
.Xr makewhatis 8
keyword database
.It Pa /etc/man.conf
default
.Xr man 1
configuration file
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
.Ex -std
.Sh EXAMPLES
Search for
.Qq .cf
as a substring of manual names and descriptions:
.Pp
.Dl $ apropos .cf
.Pp
Include matches for
.Qq .cnf
and
.Qq .conf
as well:
.Pp
.Dl $ apropos .cf .cnf .conf
.Pp
Search in names and descriptions using a regular expression:
.Pp
.Dl $ apropos '~set.?[ug]id'
.Pp
Search for manuals in the library section mentioning both the
.Qq optind
and the
.Qq optarg
variables:
.Pp
.Dl $ apropos \-s 3 Va=optind \-a Va=optarg
.Pp
Do exactly the same as calling
.Xr whatis 1
with the argument
.Qq ssh :
.Pp
.Dl $ apropos \-\- \-i 'Nm~[[:<:]]ssh[[:>:]]'
.Pp
The following two invocations are equivalent:
.Pp
.D1 Li $ apropos -S Ar arch Li -s Ar section expression
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Li $ apropos \e( Ar expression Li \e)
.Li -a arch~^( Ns Ar arch Ns Li |any)$
.Li -a sec~^ Ns Ar section Ns Li $
.Ed
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr man 1 ,
.Xr re_format 7 ,
.Xr makewhatis 8
.Sh HISTORY
Part of the functionality of
.Nm whatis
was already provided by the former
.Nm manwhere
utility in
.Bx 1 .
The
.Nm
and
.Nm whatis
utilities first appeared in
.Bx 2 .
They were rewritten from scratch for
.Ox 5.6 .
.Pp
The
.Fl M
option and the
.Ev MANPATH
variable first appeared in
.Bx 4.3 ;
.Fl m
in
.Bx 4.3 Reno ;
.Fl C
in
.Bx 4.4 Lite1 ;
and
.Fl S
and
.Fl s
in
.Ox 4.5
for
.Nm
and in
.Ox 5.6
for
.Nm whatis .
.Sh AUTHORS
.An -nosplit
.An Bill Joy
wrote
.Nm manwhere
in 1977 and the original
.Bx
.Nm
and
.Nm whatis
in February 1979.
The current version was written by
.An Kristaps Dzonsons Aq Mt kristaps@bsd.lv
and
.An Ingo Schwarze Aq Mt schwarze@openbsd.org .