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Annotation of mandoc/INSTALL, Revision 1.3

1.3     ! schwarze    1: $Id: INSTALL,v 1.2 2014/08/10 17:22:26 schwarze Exp $
1.1       schwarze    2:
1.2       schwarze    3: About mdocml, the portable mandoc distribution
                      4: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       schwarze    5: The mandoc manpage compiler toolset is a suite of tools compiling
                      6: mdoc(7), the roff(7) macro language of choice for BSD manual pages,
                      7: and man(7), the predominant historical language for UNIX manuals.
1.2       schwarze    8: The toolset does not yet implement man(1); that is only scheduled
                      9: for the next release, 1.13.2.  It can, however, already serve to
                     10: translate source manpages to the output displayed by man(1).
                     11: For general information, see <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/>.
                     13: In this document, we describe the installation and deployment of
                     14: mandoc(1), first as a simple, standalone formatter, and then as part of
                     15: the man(1) system.
                     17: In case you have questions or want to provide feedback, read
                     18: <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/contact.html>.  Consider subscribing to the
                     19: discuss@ mailing list mentioned on that page.  If you intend to
                     20: help with the development of mandoc, consider subscribing to the
                     21: tech@ mailing list, too.
                     23: Enjoy using the mandoc toolset!
                     25: Ingo Schwarze, Karlsruhe, August 2014
1.1       schwarze   27:
1.2       schwarze   28: Installation
                     29: ------------
1.1       schwarze   30: Before manually installing mandoc on your system, please check
                     31: whether the newest version of mandoc is already installed by default
                     32: or available via a binary package or a ports system.  A list of the
                     33: latest bundled and ported versions of mandoc for various operating
1.2       schwarze   34: systems is maintained at <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/ports.html>.
1.1       schwarze   35:
1.2       schwarze   36: If mandoc is installed, you can check the version by running "mandoc -V".
1.1       schwarze   37: The version contained in this distribution tarball is listed near
1.2       schwarze   38: the beginning of the file "Makefile".
1.1       schwarze   39:
1.2       schwarze   40: Regarding how packages and ports are maintained for your operating
                     41: system, please consult your operating system documentation.
                     42: To install mandoc manually, the following steps are needed:
1.1       schwarze   43:
1.2       schwarze   44: 1. Decide whether you want to build the base tools mandoc(1),
                     45: preconv(1) and demandoc(1) only or whether you also want to build the
                     46: database tools apropos(1) and makewhatis(8).  For the latter,
                     47: the following dependencies are required:
1.1       schwarze   48:
1.2       schwarze   49: 1.1. The SQLite database system, see <http://sqlite.org/>.
1.1       schwarze   50: The recommended version of SQLite is or newer.  The mandoc
                     51: toolset is known to work with version 3.7.5 or newer.  Versions
                     52: older than 3.8.3 may not achieve full performance due to the
                     53: missing SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC optimization flag.  Versions older
                     54: than 3.8.0 may not show full error information if opening a database
                     55: fails due to the missing sqlite3_errstr() API.  Both are very minor
1.2       schwarze   56: problems, apropos(1) is fully usable with SQLite 3.7.5.  Versions
                     57: older than 3.7.5 may or may not work, they have not been tested.
                     59: 1.2. The fts(3) directory traversion functions.
1.3     ! schwarze   60: If your system does not have them, the bundled compatibility version
        !            61: will be used, so you need not worry in that case.  But be careful: the
1.2       schwarze   62: glibc version of fts(3) is known to be broken on 32bit platforms,
                     63: see <https://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=15838>.
                     65: 1.3. Marc Espie's ohash(3) library.
                     66: If your system does not have it, the bundled compatibility version
1.1       schwarze   67: will be used, so you probably need not worry about it.
                     69: 2. If you choose to build the database tools, too, decide whether
                     70: you also want to build the CGI program, man.cgi(8).
                     72: 3. Read the beginning of the file "Makefile" from "USER SETTINGS"
                     73: to "END OF USER SETTINGS" and edit it as required.  In particular,
                     74: disable "BUILD_TARGETS += db-build" if you do not want database
                     75: support or enable "BUILD_TARGETS += cgi-build" if you do want
                     76: the CGI program.
1.2       schwarze   78: 4. Run "make".  No separate "./configure" or "make depend" steps
                     79: are needed.  The former is run automatically by "make".  The latter
                     80: is a maintainer target.  If you merely want to build the released
                     81: version as opposed to doing active development, there is no need
                     82: to regenerate the dependency specifications.  Any POSIX-compatible
                     83: make, in particular both BSD make and GNU make, should work.
                     85: 5. Run "make -n install" and check whether everything will be
                     86: installed to the intended places.  Otherwise, edit the *DIR variables
                     87: in the Makefile until it is.
1.1       schwarze   88:
1.2       schwarze   89: 6. Run "sudo make install".  If you intend to build a binary
1.1       schwarze   90: package using some kind of fake root mechanism, you may need a
                     91: command like "make DESTDIR=... install".  Read the *-install targets
                     92: in the "Makefile" to understand how DESTDIR is used.
1.2       schwarze   94: 7. To set up a man.cgi(8) server, read its manual page.
                     96: 8. To use mandoc(1) as your man(1) formatter, read the "Deployment"
                     97: section below.
1.1       schwarze   99:
1.2       schwarze  100: Checking autoconfiguration quality
                    101: ----------------------------------
1.1       schwarze  102: If you want to check whether automatic configuration works well
                    103: on your platform, consider the following:
                    105: The mandoc package intentionally does not use GNU autoconf because
                    106: we consider that toolset a blatant example of overengineering that
                    107: is obsolete nowadays, since all modern operating systems are now
                    108: reasonably close to POSIX and do not need arcane shell magic any
                    109: longer.  If your system does need such magic, consider upgrading
                    110: to reasonably modern POSIX-compliant tools rather than asking for
                    111: autoconf-style workarounds.
                    113: As far as mandoc is using any features not mandated by ANSI X3.159-1989
                    114: ("ANSI C") or IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX") that some modern systems
                    115: do not have, we intend to provide autoconfiguration tests and
                    116: compat_*.c implementations.  Please report any that turn out to be
                    117: missing.  Note that while we do strive to produce portable code,
                    118: we do not slavishly restrict ourselves to POSIX-only interfaces.
                    119: For improved security and readability, we do use well-designed,
                    120: modern interfaces like reallocarray(3) even if they are still rather
                    121: uncommon, of course bundling compat_*.c implementations as needed.
                    123: Where mandoc is using ANSI C or POSIX features that some systems
                    124: still lack and that compat_*.c implementations can be provided for
                    125: without too much hassle, we will consider adding them, too, so
                    126: please report whatever is missing on your platform.
                    128: The following steps can be used to manually check the automatic
                    129: configuration on your platform:
                    131: 1. Run "make clean".
                    133: 2. Run "make config.h"
                    135: 3. Read the file "config.log".  It shows the compiler commands used
                    136: to test the libraries installed on your system and the standard
                    137: output and standard error output these commands produce.  Watch out
                    138: for unexpected failures.  Those are most likely to happen if headers
                    139: or libraries are installed in unusual places or interfaces defined
                    140: in unusual headers.  You can also look at the file "config.h" and
                    141: check that no expected "#define HAVE_*" lines are missing.  The
                    142: list of tests run can be found in the file "configure".
1.2       schwarze  145: Deployment
                    146: ----------
                    147: If you want to integrate the mandoc(1) tools with your existing
                    148: man(1) system as a formatter, then contact us first: on systems without
                    149: mandoc(1) as the default, you may have your work cut out for you!
                    150: Usually, you can have your default installation and mandoc(1) work right
                    151: alongside each other by using user-specific versions of the files
                    152: mentioned below.
                    154: 0. Back up each file you want to change!
                    156: 1. First see whether your system has "/etc/man.conf" or "/etc/manpath.conf"
                    157: (if it has neither, but man(1) is functional, then let us know) or,
                    158: if running as your own user, a per-user override file.  In either
                    159: case, find where man(1) is executing nroff(1) or groff(1) to format
                    160: manuals.  Replace these calls with mandoc(1).
                    162: 2. Then make sure that man(1) isn't running preprocessors, so you may
                    163: need to replace tbl(1), eqn(1), and similar references with cat(1).
                    164: Some man(1) implementations, like that on Mac OSX, let you run "man -d"
                    165: to see how the formatter is invoked.  Use this to test your changes.  On
                    166: Mac OS X, for instance, man(1) will prepend all files with ".ll" and
                    167: ".nr" to set the terminal size, so you need to pass "tail -n+2 |
                    168: mandoc(1)" to disregard them.
                    170: 3. Finally, make sure that mandoc(1) is actually being invoked instead
                    171: of cached pages being pulled up.  You can usually do this by commenting
                    172: out NOCACHE or similar.
                    174: mandoc(1) still has a long way to go in understanding non-trivial
                    175: low-level roff(7) markup embedded in some man(7) pages.  On the BSD
                    176: systems using mandoc(1), third-party software is generally vetted
                    177: on whether it may be formatted with mandoc(1).  If not, groff(1)
                    178: is pulled in as a dependency and used to install a pre-formatted
                    179: "catpage" intead of directly as manual page source.
                    181: For more background on switching operating systems to use mandoc(1)
                    182: instead of groff(1) to format manuals, see the two BSDCan presentations
                    183: by Ingo Schwarze:
                    184: <http://www.openbsd.org/papers/bsdcan11-mandoc-openbsd.html>
                    185: <http://www.openbsd.org/papers/bsdcan14-mandoc.pdf>