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Annotation of mandoc/INSTALL, Revision ! schwarze    1: $Id: INSTALL,v 1.3 2014/08/11 01:39:00 schwarze Exp $
1.1       schwarze    2:
1.2       schwarze    3: About mdocml, the portable mandoc distribution
                      4: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       schwarze    5: The mandoc manpage compiler toolset is a suite of tools compiling
                      6: mdoc(7), the roff(7) macro language of choice for BSD manual pages,
                      7: and man(7), the predominant historical language for UNIX manuals.
1.2       schwarze    8: The toolset does not yet implement man(1); that is only scheduled
                      9: for the next release, 1.13.2.  It can, however, already serve to
                     10: translate source manpages to the output displayed by man(1).
                     11: For general information, see <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/>.
                     13: In this document, we describe the installation and deployment of
                     14: mandoc(1), first as a simple, standalone formatter, and then as part of
                     15: the man(1) system.
                     17: In case you have questions or want to provide feedback, read
                     18: <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/contact.html>.  Consider subscribing to the
                     19: discuss@ mailing list mentioned on that page.  If you intend to
                     20: help with the development of mandoc, consider subscribing to the
                     21: tech@ mailing list, too.
                     23: Enjoy using the mandoc toolset!
                     25: Ingo Schwarze, Karlsruhe, August 2014
1.1       schwarze   27:
1.2       schwarze   28: Installation
                     29: ------------
1.1       schwarze   30: Before manually installing mandoc on your system, please check
                     31: whether the newest version of mandoc is already installed by default
                     32: or available via a binary package or a ports system.  A list of the
                     33: latest bundled and ported versions of mandoc for various operating
1.2       schwarze   34: systems is maintained at <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/ports.html>.
1.1       schwarze   35:
1.2       schwarze   36: If mandoc is installed, you can check the version by running "mandoc -V". ! schwarze   37:
        !            38: The version contained in this distribution tarball is 1.12.4.
        !            39: This is not the newest version available, you can also get 1.13.1.
        !            40: Installing 1.12.4 only makes sense if all of the following conditions
        !            41: hold for you:
        !            42:
        !            43:  - You need apropos(1) and makewhatis(8) functionality.
        !            44:  - You do not need the man.cgi(8) web frontend.
        !            45:  - You do have the Berkeley database library, version 1.85.
        !            46:  - You lack at least one of the following: the SQLite3 database
        !            47:    library and/or the fts(3) file hierarchy traversal functions.
1.1       schwarze   48:
1.2       schwarze   49: Regarding how packages and ports are maintained for your operating
                     50: system, please consult your operating system documentation.
                     51: To install mandoc manually, the following steps are needed:
1.1       schwarze   52:
1.2       schwarze   53: 1. Decide whether you want to build the base tools mandoc(1),
                     54: preconv(1) and demandoc(1) only or whether you also want to build the
                     55: database tools apropos(1) and makewhatis(8).  For the latter, ! schwarze   56: the Berkeley database system, version 1.85, is required.
        !            57: It is installed by default on BSD systems and available as an
        !            58: optional software package on other systems.
1.1       schwarze   59: ! schwarze   60: 2. Read the beginning of the file "Makefile" from "USER SETTINGS"
1.1       schwarze   61: to "END OF USER SETTINGS" and edit it as required.  In particular,
                     62: disable "BUILD_TARGETS += db-build" if you do not want database ! schwarze   63: support.
1.1       schwarze   64: ! schwarze   65: 3. Run "make".  No separate "./configure" or "make depend" steps
1.2       schwarze   66: are needed.  The former is run automatically by "make".  The latter
                     67: is a maintainer target.  If you merely want to build the released
                     68: version as opposed to doing active development, there is no need
                     69: to regenerate the dependency specifications.  Any POSIX-compatible
                     70: make, in particular both BSD make and GNU make, should work.
                     71: ! schwarze   72: 4. Run "make -n install" and check whether everything will be
1.2       schwarze   73: installed to the intended places.  Otherwise, edit the *DIR variables
                     74: in the Makefile until it is.
1.1       schwarze   75: ! schwarze   76: 5. Run "sudo make install".  If you intend to build a binary
1.1       schwarze   77: package using some kind of fake root mechanism, you may need a
                     78: command like "make DESTDIR=... install".  Read the *-install targets
                     79: in the "Makefile" to understand how DESTDIR is used.
                     80: ! schwarze   81: 6. To use mandoc(1) as your man(1) formatter, read the "Deployment"
1.2       schwarze   82: section below.
1.1       schwarze   84:
1.2       schwarze   85: Checking autoconfiguration quality
                     86: ----------------------------------
1.1       schwarze   87: If you want to check whether automatic configuration works well
                     88: on your platform, consider the following:
                     90: The mandoc package intentionally does not use GNU autoconf because
                     91: we consider that toolset a blatant example of overengineering that
                     92: is obsolete nowadays, since all modern operating systems are now
                     93: reasonably close to POSIX and do not need arcane shell magic any
                     94: longer.  If your system does need such magic, consider upgrading
                     95: to reasonably modern POSIX-compliant tools rather than asking for
                     96: autoconf-style workarounds.
                     98: As far as mandoc is using any features not mandated by ANSI X3.159-1989
                     99: ("ANSI C") or IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX") that some modern systems
                    100: do not have, we intend to provide autoconfiguration tests and
                    101: compat_*.c implementations.  Please report any that turn out to be
                    102: missing.  Note that while we do strive to produce portable code,
                    103: we do not slavishly restrict ourselves to POSIX-only interfaces.
                    104: For improved security and readability, we do use well-designed,
                    105: modern interfaces like reallocarray(3) even if they are still rather
                    106: uncommon, of course bundling compat_*.c implementations as needed.
                    108: Where mandoc is using ANSI C or POSIX features that some systems
                    109: still lack and that compat_*.c implementations can be provided for
                    110: without too much hassle, we will consider adding them, too, so
                    111: please report whatever is missing on your platform.
                    113: The following steps can be used to manually check the automatic
                    114: configuration on your platform:
                    116: 1. Run "make clean".
                    118: 2. Run "make config.h"
                    120: 3. Read the file "config.log".  It shows the compiler commands used
                    121: to test the libraries installed on your system and the standard
                    122: output and standard error output these commands produce.  Watch out
                    123: for unexpected failures.  Those are most likely to happen if headers
                    124: or libraries are installed in unusual places or interfaces defined
                    125: in unusual headers.  You can also look at the file "config.h" and
                    126: check that no expected "#define HAVE_*" lines are missing.  The
                    127: list of tests run can be found in the file "configure".
1.2       schwarze  130: Deployment
                    131: ----------
                    132: If you want to integrate the mandoc(1) tools with your existing
                    133: man(1) system as a formatter, then contact us first: on systems without
                    134: mandoc(1) as the default, you may have your work cut out for you!
                    135: Usually, you can have your default installation and mandoc(1) work right
                    136: alongside each other by using user-specific versions of the files
                    137: mentioned below.
                    139: 0. Back up each file you want to change!
                    141: 1. First see whether your system has "/etc/man.conf" or "/etc/manpath.conf"
                    142: (if it has neither, but man(1) is functional, then let us know) or,
                    143: if running as your own user, a per-user override file.  In either
                    144: case, find where man(1) is executing nroff(1) or groff(1) to format
                    145: manuals.  Replace these calls with mandoc(1).
                    147: 2. Then make sure that man(1) isn't running preprocessors, so you may
                    148: need to replace tbl(1), eqn(1), and similar references with cat(1).
                    149: Some man(1) implementations, like that on Mac OSX, let you run "man -d"
                    150: to see how the formatter is invoked.  Use this to test your changes.  On
                    151: Mac OS X, for instance, man(1) will prepend all files with ".ll" and
                    152: ".nr" to set the terminal size, so you need to pass "tail -n+2 |
                    153: mandoc(1)" to disregard them.
                    155: 3. Finally, make sure that mandoc(1) is actually being invoked instead
                    156: of cached pages being pulled up.  You can usually do this by commenting
                    157: out NOCACHE or similar.
                    159: mandoc(1) still has a long way to go in understanding non-trivial
                    160: low-level roff(7) markup embedded in some man(7) pages.  On the BSD
                    161: systems using mandoc(1), third-party software is generally vetted
                    162: on whether it may be formatted with mandoc(1).  If not, groff(1)
                    163: is pulled in as a dependency and used to install a pre-formatted
                    164: "catpage" intead of directly as manual page source.
                    166: For more background on switching operating systems to use mandoc(1)
                    167: instead of groff(1) to format manuals, see the two BSDCan presentations
                    168: by Ingo Schwarze:
                    169: <http://www.openbsd.org/papers/bsdcan11-mandoc-openbsd.html>
                    170: <http://www.openbsd.org/papers/bsdcan14-mandoc.pdf>