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Annotation of mandoc/INSTALL, Revision 1.8

1.7       schwarze    1: $Id: INSTALL,v 1.6 2014/11/30 22:47:16 schwarze Exp $
1.1       schwarze    2:
1.2       schwarze    3: About mdocml, the portable mandoc distribution
                      4: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       schwarze    5: The mandoc manpage compiler toolset is a suite of tools compiling
                      6: mdoc(7), the roff(7) macro language of choice for BSD manual pages,
                      7: and man(7), the predominant historical language for UNIX manuals.
1.7       schwarze    8: Since the present version 1.13.2, it includes a man(1) manual viewer
                      9: in addition to the apropos(1) manual page search tool.
1.2       schwarze   10: For general information, see <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/>.
                     12: In this document, we describe the installation and deployment of
                     13: mandoc(1), first as a simple, standalone formatter, and then as part of
                     14: the man(1) system.
                     16: In case you have questions or want to provide feedback, read
                     17: <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/contact.html>.  Consider subscribing to the
                     18: discuss@ mailing list mentioned on that page.  If you intend to
                     19: help with the development of mandoc, consider subscribing to the
                     20: tech@ mailing list, too.
                     22: Enjoy using the mandoc toolset!
1.7       schwarze   24: Ingo Schwarze, Karlsruhe, December 2014
1.2       schwarze   25:
1.1       schwarze   26:
1.2       schwarze   27: Installation
                     28: ------------
1.1       schwarze   29: Before manually installing mandoc on your system, please check
                     30: whether the newest version of mandoc is already installed by default
                     31: or available via a binary package or a ports system.  A list of the
                     32: latest bundled and ported versions of mandoc for various operating
1.2       schwarze   33: systems is maintained at <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/ports.html>.
1.1       schwarze   34:
1.2       schwarze   35: If mandoc is installed, you can check the version by running "mandoc -V".
1.4       schwarze   36: You can find the version contained in this distribution tarball
                     37: by running "./configure".
1.1       schwarze   38:
1.2       schwarze   39: Regarding how packages and ports are maintained for your operating
                     40: system, please consult your operating system documentation.
                     41: To install mandoc manually, the following steps are needed:
1.1       schwarze   42:
1.4       schwarze   43: 1. If you want to build the CGI program, man.cgi(8), too, run the
1.5       kristaps   44: command "echo BUILD_CGI=1 > configure.local".  Then run "cp
                     45: cgi.h.examples cgi.h" and edit cgi.h as desired.
1.1       schwarze   46:
1.4       schwarze   47: 2. Run "./configure".
                     48: This script attempts autoconfiguration of mandoc for your system.
                     49: Read both its standard output and the file "Makefile.local" it
                     50: generates.  If anything looks wrong or different from what you
                     51: wish, read the file "configure.local.example", create and edit
                     52: a file "configure.local", and re-run "./configure" until the
                     53: result seems right to you.
                     55: 3. Run "make".
                     56: Any POSIX-compatible make, in particular both BSD make and GNU make,
                     57: should work.  If the build fails, look at "configure.local.example"
                     58: and go back to step 2.
                     60: 4. Run "make -n install" and check whether everything will be
1.7       schwarze   61: installed to the intended places.  Otherwise, put some *DIR or *NM*
                     62: variables into "configure.local" and go back to step 2.
1.4       schwarze   63:
                     64: 5. Run "sudo make install".  If you intend to build a binary
                     65: package using some kind of fake root mechanism, you may need a
                     66: command like "make DESTDIR=... install".  Read the *-install targets
                     67: in the "Makefile" to understand how DESTDIR is used.
                     69: 6. To set up a man.cgi(8) server, read its manual page.
                     71: 7. To use mandoc(1) as your man(1) formatter, read the "Deployment"
1.7       schwarze   72: sections below.
1.4       schwarze   73:
                     75: Understanding mandoc dependencies
                     76: ---------------------------------
1.7       schwarze   77: The mandoc(1) and demandoc(1) utilities have no external dependencies.
                     78: However, makewhatis(8), apropos(1), and man(1) depend on the following
                     79: software:
1.4       schwarze   80:
                     81: 1. The SQLite database system, see <http://sqlite.org/>.
1.1       schwarze   82: The recommended version of SQLite is or newer.  The mandoc
                     83: toolset is known to work with version 3.7.5 or newer.  Versions
                     84: older than 3.8.3 may not achieve full performance due to the
                     85: missing SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC optimization flag.  Versions older
                     86: than 3.8.0 may not show full error information if opening a database
                     87: fails due to the missing sqlite3_errstr() API.  Both are very minor
1.2       schwarze   88: problems, apropos(1) is fully usable with SQLite 3.7.5.  Versions
                     89: older than 3.7.5 may or may not work, they have not been tested.
1.7       schwarze   91: 2. The fts(3) directory traversion functions.
1.3       schwarze   92: If your system does not have them, the bundled compatibility version
                     93: will be used, so you need not worry in that case.  But be careful: the
1.2       schwarze   94: glibc version of fts(3) is known to be broken on 32bit platforms,
                     95: see <https://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=15838>.
1.4       schwarze   96: If you run into that problem, set "HAVE_FTS=0" in configure.local.
1.2       schwarze   97:
1.7       schwarze   98: 3. Marc Espie's ohash(3) library.
1.2       schwarze   99: If your system does not have it, the bundled compatibility version
1.1       schwarze  100: will be used, so you probably need not worry about it.
1.2       schwarze  103: Checking autoconfiguration quality
                    104: ----------------------------------
1.1       schwarze  105: If you want to check whether automatic configuration works well
                    106: on your platform, consider the following:
                    108: The mandoc package intentionally does not use GNU autoconf because
                    109: we consider that toolset a blatant example of overengineering that
                    110: is obsolete nowadays, since all modern operating systems are now
                    111: reasonably close to POSIX and do not need arcane shell magic any
                    112: longer.  If your system does need such magic, consider upgrading
                    113: to reasonably modern POSIX-compliant tools rather than asking for
                    114: autoconf-style workarounds.
                    116: As far as mandoc is using any features not mandated by ANSI X3.159-1989
                    117: ("ANSI C") or IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX") that some modern systems
                    118: do not have, we intend to provide autoconfiguration tests and
                    119: compat_*.c implementations.  Please report any that turn out to be
                    120: missing.  Note that while we do strive to produce portable code,
                    121: we do not slavishly restrict ourselves to POSIX-only interfaces.
                    122: For improved security and readability, we do use well-designed,
                    123: modern interfaces like reallocarray(3) even if they are still rather
                    124: uncommon, of course bundling compat_*.c implementations as needed.
                    126: Where mandoc is using ANSI C or POSIX features that some systems
                    127: still lack and that compat_*.c implementations can be provided for
                    128: without too much hassle, we will consider adding them, too, so
                    129: please report whatever is missing on your platform.
                    131: The following steps can be used to manually check the automatic
                    132: configuration on your platform:
1.4       schwarze  134: 1. Run "make distclean".
1.1       schwarze  135:
1.4       schwarze  136: 2. Run "./configure"
1.1       schwarze  137:
                    138: 3. Read the file "config.log".  It shows the compiler commands used
                    139: to test the libraries installed on your system and the standard
                    140: output and standard error output these commands produce.  Watch out
                    141: for unexpected failures.  Those are most likely to happen if headers
                    142: or libraries are installed in unusual places or interfaces defined
                    143: in unusual headers.  You can also look at the file "config.h" and
1.4       schwarze  144: check that no "#define HAVE_*" differ from your expectations.
1.1       schwarze  145:
1.7       schwarze  147: Deployment using the integrated man(1) viewer
                    148: ---------------------------------------------
                    149: This mode of deployment requires database support.  In case of
                    150: doubt, look at the section "user settings related to database
                    151: support" in the file configure.local.example.
                    153: Deployment requires the following steps:
                    155: 1. Build and install mandoc as described above in steps 2 to 5
                    156: below "Installation".
1.8     ! schwarze  158: 2. If your system uses manpath(1), make sure it is configured
1.7       schwarze  159: correctly, in particular, it returns all directory trees where
                    160: manual pages are installed.  If your system uses man.conf(5), make
1.8     ! schwarze  161: sure it contains a "_whatdb" line for each directory tree, and the
        !           162: order of these lines meets your wishes.
1.7       schwarze  163:
                    164: 3. Run the command "sudo makewhatis" to build mandoc.db(5) databases
                    165: in all the directory trees configured in step 2.
                    167: At this point, your new man(1), apropos(1), and whatis(1) should work.
                    168: Otherwise, please look at <http://mdocml.bsd.lv/contact.html>, both
                    169: for help and to have these instructions improved.
1.8     ! schwarze  170:
        !           171: Whenever installing new manual pages, re-run makewhatis(8) to update
        !           172: the databases, or man(1) will not find the new pages.
1.7       schwarze  173:
                    175: Deployment using your system's native man(1) viewer
                    176: ---------------------------------------------------
                    177: This mode of deployment does not require database support,
                    178: so it works even if you don't have SQLite3.
1.2       schwarze  180: Usually, you can have your default installation and mandoc(1) work right
                    181: alongside each other by using user-specific versions of the files
                    182: mentioned below.
                    184: 0. Back up each file you want to change!
                    186: 1. First see whether your system has "/etc/man.conf" or "/etc/manpath.conf"
                    187: (if it has neither, but man(1) is functional, then let us know) or,
                    188: if running as your own user, a per-user override file.  In either
                    189: case, find where man(1) is executing nroff(1) or groff(1) to format
                    190: manuals.  Replace these calls with mandoc(1).
                    192: 2. Then make sure that man(1) isn't running preprocessors, so you may
                    193: need to replace tbl(1), eqn(1), and similar references with cat(1).
                    194: Some man(1) implementations, like that on Mac OSX, let you run "man -d"
                    195: to see how the formatter is invoked.  Use this to test your changes.  On
                    196: Mac OS X, for instance, man(1) will prepend all files with ".ll" and
                    197: ".nr" to set the terminal size, so you need to pass "tail -n+2 |
                    198: mandoc(1)" to disregard them.
                    200: 3. Finally, make sure that mandoc(1) is actually being invoked instead
                    201: of cached pages being pulled up.  You can usually do this by commenting
                    202: out NOCACHE or similar.
1.7       schwarze  203:
1.2       schwarze  204:
                    205: mandoc(1) still has a long way to go in understanding non-trivial
                    206: low-level roff(7) markup embedded in some man(7) pages.  On the BSD
                    207: systems using mandoc(1), third-party software is generally vetted
                    208: on whether it may be formatted with mandoc(1).  If not, groff(1)
                    209: is pulled in as a dependency and used to install a pre-formatted
1.6       schwarze  210: "catpage" instead of directly as manual page source.
1.2       schwarze  211:
                    212: For more background on switching operating systems to use mandoc(1)
                    213: instead of groff(1) to format manuals, see the two BSDCan presentations
                    214: by Ingo Schwarze:
                    215: <http://www.openbsd.org/papers/bsdcan11-mandoc-openbsd.html>
                    216: <http://www.openbsd.org/papers/bsdcan14-mandoc.pdf>